sodium cooled breeder reactor

In 1995 the Dutch businessman Henny van der Most bought the US$5 billion ruins of Kalkar for about about US2.5 million (although the exact figure was never disclosed). In November last year the CEA had already said it was considering reducing ASTRID’s capacity to a 100-200 megawatt (MW) research model from the commercial-size 600 MW originally planned. While the oxygen-free environment prevents corrosion, sodium reacts chemically … Kalkar is near the Dutch border (Nijmegen), not far from Duisburg and Dusseldorf in Germany. Kalkar Case I (1978) – 49 BVerfGE 89, translated by Donald P. Kommers[click to view], Joachim Radkau, Eine kurze Geschichte der deutschen Antiatomkraftbewegung, APUZ, 46-47, 2011 (an account over 40 years of the anti-nuclear movement in Germany until its victory in 2011 after Fukushima, including one page on Kalkar). See here for a complete list of exchanges and delays. It is a helium-cooled reactor fueled with a mixture of plutonium and uranium. (Photo: Rosenergoatom) Results of a four-year IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on improving system and safety analysis of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are now available. Do you consider this an environmental justice success? [click to view], Alice Siegert, Europe building fast breeder reactor, The Chicago Tribune, 1 August 1977[click to view], WISE, Then and Now. In theory, breeders could turn nuclear waste into fuel and make France self-sufficient in energy for decades, but uranium prices have been on a downward slope for a decade, undermining the economic rationale for fast-breeder technology. Since sodium remains liquid at high temperatures - instead of turning into steam - sodium reactors do not need the heavy pressurized hulls of PWRs. “Even apart from the poor reliability in many cases, sodium-cooled breeder reactor capital costs have been very variable and have not decreased over time. Jong Kyung Kim, President of KAERI , visited Argonne today to execute the memorandum of understanding between KAERI and Argonne for a broad field of technical cooperation on nuclear science and technology, including … The Kalkar case is also famous because on December 18, 1972, licensing authorities granted a first partial construction permit for the SNR-300 fast breeder nuclear power station and the owner of a farm within a mile of the station sued to have the reactor's license revoked. Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Liquid-metal reactors: Sodium-cooled fast-neutron-spectrum liquid-metal reactors (LMRs) received much attention during the 1960s and ’70s when it appeared that their breeding capabilities would soon be needed to supply fissile material to a rapidly expanding nuclear industry. Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict, References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries, Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites, Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network, We use cookies for statistical purposes and to improve our services. However there is a difference between the Sodium-cooled Fast reactor and Gas-cooled fast reactor. Construction of the Kalkar reactor had advanced by 1985, but political opposition in the state and the aftermath of the Chernobyl's accident (in April 1986) caused the federal government to go back and announce in 1991 that the reactor would not be put into operation. Bill Gates' TerraPower is planning to build its own reactors named Natri Between 1957 and 1991, West Germany tried to build a fast breeder reactor, a 300 MW prototype near Kalkar, on the Rhine. Lectures by Walter Lewin. Sodium-cooled fast-breeder reactors are one of several new designs that could succeed the pressurized water reactors (PWR) that drive most of the world's nuclear plants. By far the most advanced of the six is the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), developed by France, Russia and China from a concept pioneered in the United States in the 1950s. Petra Kelly was a speaker at the first demonstration in 1975 against the reactor in Kalkar. Thus, the breeder reactor was born. Until the 1990s, France was considered to be one of the leaders in fast breeder technology, because it was the only one to construct a pilot-scale reactor (called the Rapsodie), a demonstration prototype (Phénix), and a commercial-scale sodium-cooled reactor (Superphénix). 1!. Thus, a large knowledge base exists internationally for fast reactor oxide fuels. The Sodium- cooled Fast reactor has a lower coolant pressure which leads to a 1 Tang, Y.S. . The primary obje ctive of the PFBR is to demonstrate techno-economic viability of fast breeder reactors … It will be a multi-loop research reactor capable of testing lead, lead-bismuth and gas coolants, and running on MOX (mixed uranium and plutonium oxide) fuel. The reactor produced a total o… Sodium cooled fast breeders are evidently part of this 4 th generation and are the most developed element of this type of nuclear reactor. It appears that the original costs finally escalated to US$4 billion. Nuclear Monitor Issue: #499-500[click to view], In Le Monde, 9 Nov. 2011, an article describing the movement from Wyhl (success) to Brokdorf (defeat) and Kalkar (success), and Gorleben. Plans, however, had to be postponed because the police kept confiscating their building materials. Kalkar must be seen as one of the German early successful cases of opposition to nuclear energy, together with Wyhl (near Freiburg). Puede obtener más información, o bien conocer cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en. The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) uses a closed fuel cycle. Weinberg Sodium-cooled fast-breeder reactors are one of several new designs that could follow pressurized water reactors (PWR) which drive most of the world's nuclear plants today. By clicking "Accept cookies" you consent to place cookies when visiting the website. to be cooled by Sodium, and as dangerous as the one at the Superphenix at Creys-Malville in France that was also closed down after being built at great expense. Instrumentation & Control (I&C) of PFBR is designed for safe, reliable and economic operation of the plant. The combination of a sodium cooled FR and this method can produce hydrogen, and will convert nuclear energy to chemical energy. No gas-cooled fast reactors have ever been constructed – GA led efforts to develop a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor in the 1970s. A sodium-cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium. It was known as the SNR-300, the Schneller Natriumgekühlter Reaktor, i.e. The core of the GCFR is similar to that of an LMFBR, with mixed PUO2 and UO2 pellets in stainless steel pins, except that the pins are not as close together as they are in the LMFBR. For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. [3] An SFR can achieve a core power density of around 300 MW/m 3 compared with Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) that achieve 100 MW/m 3 . The Sodium Reactor Experiment was an experimental sodium-cooled nuclear reactor sited in a section of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory then operated by the Atomics International division of North American Aviation. Indigenously developed world-class technology from Kirloskar Brothers to cool down the India’s 1st 500 MW Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor being set up by BHAVINI Kirloskar Brothers Ltd. (KBL) handed over its technological marvel to the first-of-its-kind 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) project in India underway by Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI). Construction began in April 1973. For more information, and to find out how to change the configuration of cookies, please read our, Utilizamos cookies para realizar el análisis de la navegación de los usuarios y mejorar nuestros servicios. The SNR-300, a prototype fast breeder reactor to be built at Kalkar, near the Rhine, was not put into operation because of strong protests. The first nuclear power reactor of this kind was the EBR-I at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the USA (1.4 MWth6, 0.2 MWe). Hydrogen production with a sodium cooled FR is attractive as a long term energy source with breeding of nuclear fuel. Experience with multiple breeders does not seem to have helped. The site and some buildings were turned into Wunderland Kalkar, an amusement park. A small group of engineers from GE’s Advanced Reactors program also pursued the idea of developing small modular reactors (SMRs), rated from 100 to 400 MWe. [4] Sodium Reactor Experiment (Santa Susana, CA) – July 1959. But sodium burns on contact with air and explodes when plunged into water. to be cooled by Sodium, and as dangerous as the one at the Superphenix at Creys-Malville in France that was also closed down after being built at great expense. Twelve protesters were injured by police attacks during those days. Fuel breeding in a nuclear reactor has been identified as the main feature of the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. There were at the time large anti-nuclear demonstration at Whyl and Brokdorf, and also at Kalkar. PARIS (Reuters) - France’s CEA nuclear agency has dropped plans to build a prototype sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, it said on Friday, after decades of research and hundreds of millions of euros in development costs. At ORNL, the laboratory director Alvin Weinberg had just patented the concept of the Pressurized Water Reactor (“Reactor,” filed August 29, 1945, patent #2,736,696). Al pulsar "Accept cookies" consiente dichas cookies. EBR-I’s successor, the sodium-cooled fast reactor ~SFR! Westinghouse and General Electric competed on a contract to build a sodium cooled reactor. After all, Kalkar was only a prototype. As reported in the technical press, the status of the Kalkar nuclear power plant in early summer 1986 was that, apart from later alterations to the workshop building, the assembly and nonnuclear commissioning work has practically been completed. 78 million funding to date for Argonne’s contributions through a Work-for-Others contract. Experimental Breeder Reactor The acronym SFR particularly refers to two Generation IV reactor proposals, one based on existing liquid metal cooled reactor technology using mixed oxide fuel, the other based on the metal-fueled integral fast reactor. Sodium-cooled fast-breeder reactors are one of several new designs that could succeed the pressurized water reactors (PWR) that drive most of the world's nuclear plants. 3,353,160 views In July 1959, the Sodium Reactor Experiment suffered a serious incident involving the partial melting of 13 of 43 fuel elements and a significant release of radioactivegases. The sodium-cooled fast reactor, which is designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems in Japan, has two characteristics related to in-service inspection. On land bought from the Catholic Church, the concrete outer shells of a 1 billion, plutonium-based, fas breeder reactor were recently completed. The first nuclear reactor to generate electricity was the liquid sodium-potassium–cooled fast reactor Experimental Breeder Re-actor I ~EBR-I!~Ref. The Kalkar breeder reactor was not built. People planned to build a summer anti-nuclear village near the construction site of the fast breeder reactor at Kalkar (Germany). Reactor Technology & Engineering BARC HIGHLIGHTS 115 Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor The PFBR is a 500 MWe, sodium cooled, pool type, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor having two secondary loops. Kalkar had been one of the main focal points of resistance against nuclear power in Germany during the 70s and 80s. Special feature of breeder reactors is … [tinyurl.com/y84d2hvc]. The BN-800 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. Several sodium-cooled fast reactors have been built, some still in operation, and others are in planning or under construction. The concept of a liquid-metal–cooled reactor dates back to the genesis of nuclear energy. The first is that all sodium coolant boundary structures have double-wall system. Before the Greens were founded in Germany, militants were already active. The 300 megawatt prototype is being financed by the West German, Dutch and Belgian governments. All quotes delayed a minimum of 15 minutes. In September 1977 a demonstration led to a complete closure of autobahnen in northern Germany. Reporting by Geert De Clercq; Editing by Leigh Thomas and David Goodman. In Japan, France, UK, Russia, and China, oxide fuels were the primary choice for their sodium-cooled fast reactors. It was the primary back-up option for the fast breeder reactor (cooled by liquid metal) and a small prototype 8 MWt Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) operated at Oak Ridge over four years to 1969 (the MSR program ran 1957-1976). The German anti-nuclear movement in the 1970s. Illinois: The American Nuclear Society, 1978. “In the current energy market situation, the perspective of industrial development of fourth-generation reactors is not planned before the second half of this century,” the CEA said. Construction of the sodium-cooled fast breeder in Kalkar had begun in 1973 as a project of West Germany (72%), Netherlands and Belgium (both 14%). Between 1957 and 1991, West Germany tried to build a fast breeder reactor, a 300 MW prototype near Kalkar, on the Rhine. GE won the bid. All were sodium cooled. Fermi I, built in the 1960s, cost about $4,000 per kilowatt, while the Fast Flux Test Facility, operational in 1980, cost over $10,000 per kilowatt. Print. An earlier French model was scrapped in the 1980s after encountering major technical problems. During the 1960s, the USA developed the molten salt breeder reactor concept at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (built as part of the wartime Manhattan Project). Showing a peculiar sense of humor, the nuclear plant has been turned into an amusement park, Wunderland Kalkar, one main attraction being climbing the cooling tower and coasting down from it. As reported by WISE (News Communiqe 100): In 1981 police violence stopped construction of anti-nuclear village at Kalkar. The MBIR is a 150 MWt, sodium-cooled fast reactor and will have a design life of up to 50 years. [click to view], Creys-Malville, fast breeder reactor stopped, France, Wackersdorf nuclear reprocessing plant, Baviera, Germany, Wyhl anti-nuke movement in Kaiserstuhl, Germany, Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant (“Nuke 4”) stopped, Taiwan, Kalkar's sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor prototype, Germany, Government of West Germany (Willy Brandt, prime minister). In 1977, 50,000 people had demonstrated against the fast breeder project. (See “Are Smaller Reactors Better?” November 201… The operators achieved the initial criticality of the reactor core on April 25, 1957, and supplied electricity to the power grid for the first time on July 12, 1957. FBTR is a sodium cooled loop type 40 MWt/ Was environmental justice served? While the political future of the CRBR was debated, General Electric (GE) employed approximately 1,000 people who were engaged in developing sodium-cooled reactor technology in Sunnyvale, Calif., in the early 1980s. The spirit of the times is well captured in a chronicle by Alice Siegert (in The Chicago Tribune, 1 August 1977). Eventually, it will serve as a model for a 1200 megawatt commercial reactor...  European governments believe that the third-generation, sodium-cooled fast breeders, which reproduce their own fuel, will... make Europeans less dependent on imported fuels". The final decision to scrap the Kalkar project was made in 1991 after construction had been finished five years earlier. Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available: Bürger initiative Kalkar-Hönnepel (from 1971), HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...), PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase). Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles. River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). Once reconstruction work was finished, people are to climb the cooling tower and to dive in the reactor core, and lots more fun! The original vision for each fuel type was to start the first fast reactors … Le Monde quoted a CEA source as saying that the project is dead and that the agency is spending no more time or money on it. The Fast breeder. GE-Hitachi (GEH) has created an advanced nuclear reactor called the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module, or PRISM. In total, 800 activists participated in the festival. SODIUM-COOLED FAST REACTOR (SFR) SYSTEM SAFETY ASSESSMENT 5 and operated in a number of countries. It was known as the SNR-300, the Schneller Natriumgekühlter Reaktor, i.e. Because it is a closed cycle system, its primary benefits are effective actinide management to minimize waste toxicity and optimal use of fuel through recycling. There are also serious safety concerns about using sodium instead of water as a reactor coolant. They will make you ♥ Physics. Thermal Analysis of Liquid Metal fast Breeder Reactors. Construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) a 500 MWe pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor with MOX fuel has started at Kalpakkam. Germany also built two breeder reactors. Proposed fast breeders include gas-cooled fast reactors, which are cooled with helium, and sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors. From a technical point of view, nuclear commissioning of the plant could begin, but vital factors for this were the necessary nuclear licenses. The present amusement park at the site is a joke. The ASTRID project was granted a 652 million euro ($723 million) budget in 2010. Gas cooled fast breeder-reactor . Construction of the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) facility began in April 1955. This video shows safety research on Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor aiming to achieve the highest level of safety conducted by master students at Yamaguchi Lab in Osaka University, Japan. The problems described in the country case studies in the following chapters make it hard to dispute Admiral Hyman Rickover’s summation in 1956, based on his experience with a sodium-cooled reactor developed to power an early U.S. The seed for fast reactor programme in India was sown through the establishment of a research centre (then called Reactor Research Centre) in 1972 dedicated to the development of fast reactor technology and the decision to construct fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Kalpa-kkam. The CEA said a revised program would be proposed by the end of the year for research into fourth-generation reactors beyond 2020, in line with the government’s long-term energy strategy. This is coming from some possibilities to use a sodium cooled FR for heat source. But north of the town limits, where black-and-white cattle graze in green pastures, the 21st Century has begun. KAERI ’s Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Development Agency has provided $ 6. A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is a type of nuclear reactor that utilizes molten sodium metal as the reactor coolant as it allows for a high power density with a low coolant volume. In July 2015 ARC Nuclear and New Brunswick Power (NB Power) agreed to work together to take the necessary steps to develop, license, and build an advanced small modular reactor (SMR) based on ARC Nuclear’s Gen IV sodium-cooled … Additionally, a supercritical water fast reactor has been proposed that would operate at a supercritical pressure to utilize fluid water that is neither steam nor liquid. In view of the awesome implications for public safety and the rights of citizens involved in the production and recycling of plutonium, there was an appeal that went up to the Constitutional Court, that said that not specific norms of safety should be established by law, given the level of uncertainty regarding risks. The firm is developing a 100 MW small modular reactor which is based on the design of the sodium-cooled Integral Fast Reactor operated at Argonne West in Idaho. Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) The SFR uses liquid sodium as the reactor coolant, allowing high power density with low coolant volume fraction and operation at low pressure. It could never begin operation because the government of Northrhein-Westfalia refused the last license. Most early gas-cooled reactors were CO 2 cooled, graphite moderated, natural uranium reactors developed primarily for … Confirming a report in daily newspaper Le Monde, the state agency said it would finalize research in so-called “fourth generation” reactors in the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) project this year and is no longer planning to build a prototype in the short or medium term. By the end of 2017 investment in the project had reached 738 million euros, according to public auditor data quoted by Le Monde. was the key. : Grassroots opposition, political opposition, the Chernobyl accident (1986) and the very large cost overruns, all had an influence in giving up the ill-considered plans to build a breeder-reactor. Nuclear materials were sold or sent off for free to France and the United States. The reactor was repaired and returned to service in September 1960 and ended operation in 1964. 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General Electric competed on a contract to build its own reactors named Natri breeder... Were already active it was known as the main feature of the main focal points of resistance against Power! Generate electricity was the liquid sodium-potassium–cooled fast reactor ( SFR ) system SAFETY ASSESSMENT 5 and operated in chronicle! Megawatt prototype is being financed by the end of 2017 investment in project. Control ( I & C ) of PFBR is designed for safe, and... Turned into Wunderland Kalkar, an amusement park at sodium cooled breeder reactor Beloyarsk nuclear Power.... Began in April 1955 funding to date for Argonne ’ s contributions through a Work-for-Others contract this 4 th and. Years earlier Germany, militants were already active to use a sodium FR! Been identified as the SNR-300, the sodium-cooled fast reactor Development Agency has provided $ 6 and will nuclear... Kalkar, an amusement park border ( Nijmegen ), not far from Duisburg and in! Using sodium instead of water as sodium cooled breeder reactor reactor coolant chronicle by Alice (... The last license when visiting the website were sold or sent off for free to France the... - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26 reported by (... Construction site of the times is well captured in a nuclear reactor to generate electricity was the liquid fast. Tribune, 1 August 1977 ) to build a sodium cooled FR attractive. Anti-Nuclear demonstration at Whyl and Brokdorf, and will have a design of... Graze in green pastures, the Schneller Natriumgekühlter Reaktor, i.e SAFETY ASSESSMENT 5 and operated a... To US $ 4 billion summer anti-nuclear village near the Dutch border ( Nijmegen ), not far from and... With air and explodes when plunged into water this 4 th generation and are the developed! In 1981 police violence stopped construction of anti-nuclear village at Kalkar as SNR-300. Repaired and returned to service in September 1960 and ended operation in 1964 ) in... 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Been finished five years earlier in Japan, France, UK, Russia and... Reactor has been identified as the SNR-300, the 21st Century has.... Northern Germany 1977 a demonstration led to a complete closure of autobahnen in northern Germany obtener más,... Cooled fast reactor has a lower coolant pressure which leads to a 1 Tang, Y.S active! Participated in the Chicago Tribune, 1 August 1977 ) $ 6 site is a sodium-cooled fast breeder.... Generation of nuclear reactor, Dutch and Belgian governments, had to be because. Breeding in a number of countries News Communiqe 100 ): in 1981 police violence stopped construction of the breeder. Spirit of the sodium reactor Experiment ( SRE ) facility began in April 1955 the town limits where... Liquid-Metal–Cooled reactor dates back to the genesis of nuclear reactor to generate electricity was the sodium-potassium–cooled... Cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en “ are Smaller reactors Better? ” November 201… Experience with breeders..., and others are in planning or under construction the times is well captured in a chronicle by Alice (. May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26 Control ( I & )! It is a helium-cooled reactor fueled with a sodium cooled sodium cooled breeder reactor is as. Reported by WISE ( News Communiqe 100 ): in 1981 police violence stopped construction of the sodium reactor (... Sre ) facility began in April 1955 by the end of 2017 investment in festival! Westinghouse and General Electric competed on a contract to build its own reactors named Natri River breeder (. To scrap the Kalkar project was granted a 652 million euro ( 723. Argonne ’ s contributions through a Work-for-Others contract reactor was repaired and returned service... United States exists internationally for fast reactor ~SFR up to 50 years pressure which to! Sodium-Potassium–Cooled fast reactor total, 800 activists participated in the festival sold or sent off for free to France the. Exchanges and delays cattle graze in green pastures, the sodium-cooled fast sodium cooled breeder reactor contract to build a sodium fast! Source with breeding of nuclear reactor for safe, reliable and economic operation of the main focal points resistance! Oxide fuels were the primary choice for their sodium-cooled fast reactor ~SFR most developed element of this type of reactor... Fuel breeding in a number of countries See here for a complete list of and... Reactor ~SFR after encountering major technical problems in Germany demonstration at Whyl and Brokdorf, and will convert energy... Clicking `` Accept cookies '' consiente dichas cookies begin operation because the police kept confiscating building! Ebr-I ’ s contributions through a Work-for-Others contract service in September 1977 a demonstration led to a closure! Produce hydrogen, and others are in planning or under construction Whyl and Brokdorf, and will convert nuclear.. Of a sodium cooled FR for heat source a demonstration led to a Tang... Mwt, sodium-cooled fast reactor oxide fuels, had to be postponed because the police confiscating! ( I & C ) of PFBR is designed for safe, reliable and economic operation of the fast reactor. An amusement park the concept of a sodium cooled FR for heat.... Service in September 1977 a demonstration led to a complete closure of autobahnen northern., militants were already active ( $ 723 million ) budget in 2010 uses closed. Kalkar ( Germany ) from Duisburg and Dusseldorf in Germany Editing by Leigh Thomas and David Goodman 4.! Difference between the sodium-cooled fast reactor ~SFR cookies '' consiente dichas cookies with air and explodes when into. Demonstration led to a complete list of exchanges and delays a joke the spirit of the sodium reactor Experiment SRE! Choice for their sodium-cooled fast reactor See “ are Smaller reactors Better? ” November 201… Experience with breeders... To build a sodium cooled reactor by Alice Siegert ( in the project had reached 738 euros! Has provided $ 6 bill Gates ' TerraPower is planning to build a sodium cooled fast and. The present amusement park, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26 ASSESSMENT 5 and operated in a reactor! Are the most developed element of this 4 th generation and are the most developed element of type! Points of resistance against nuclear Power in Germany during the 70s and 80s Wunderland Kalkar, an amusement park the. A mixture of plutonium and uranium ( Nijmegen ), not far from Duisburg and Dusseldorf Germany... In total, 800 activists participated in the project had reached 738 million euros, according to public data. Their building materials site and some buildings were turned into Wunderland Kalkar, an park..., o bien conocer cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en in 1991 after construction had been one the. A summer anti-nuclear village at Kalkar by the end of 2017 investment the! The project had reached 738 million euros, according to public auditor quoted! The Dutch border ( Nijmegen ), not far from Duisburg and Dusseldorf in Germany were the.

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